The only scientist to win the Nobel Prize for Physics twice


John Bardeen showed his talents from a young age and contributed to the revolution in electronic technology with excellent research.

The Nobel Prize for Physics was born in 1901 and has been awarded 112 times to 210 scholars and research groups around the world, according to the Nobel Prize. In particular, the only person to receive the prestigious award twice was John Bardeen.


John Bardeen received the Physics Prize in 1956 and 1972. (Photo: Nobel Prize).

Bardeen was born on May 23, 1908 into a family in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. His father was Dr. Charles R. Bardeen, dean of the University of Wisconsin medical department. Bardeen showed his intelligence early and was allowed by his parents to go from third grade to junior high school. He enrolled at the University of Wisconsin at the age of 15 and majored in engineering, then received a master's degree.

Bardeen graduated from university during the Great Depression, scarce jobs. He became a geophysicist working at the Gulf Oil Company research lab. After three years, Bardeen realized this was not his area of ​​passion. He left there and studied at Princeton University and received his doctorate in mathematical physics.


John Bardeen in the process of working at Bell Laboratories. (Photo: Open Mind).

At Princeton, Bardeen began to specialize in metal research under the guidance of Professor E.P. Wigner, using new quantum mechanics theories to better understand semiconductors. He completed his thesis in 1935 and was nominated for a position at Harvard University. He worked here for three years. Also during this time, he married biologist Jane Maxwell and later had three children.

In 1945, when World War II ended, Bardeen worked at Bell Laboratories. He further investigated semiconductors, in particular the movement of electrons. Two years later, he and physicists William Shockley and Walter Brattain, first introduced transistors, or transistors, to the world. This invention has started a revolution in the field of electronics.

In addition to replacing bulky vacuum electronic lights, transistors also help shrink the parts needed to develop a computer. This achievement helped Barden and his two colleagues win the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956.

"We are fortunate to be present in a period that is particularly suitable for adding a small step to the process of natural control for the benefit of humankind," he said after the award.


Three scientists received the Physics Prize in 1956 for their work on transistors. (Photo: Senior Tech Group).

Bardeen went back to previous research on superconducting phenomena. This research helps explain the resistance that disappears when materials reach temperatures close to absolute zero. His work with physicists Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer helped build the BCS theory of superconductivity. BCS has become the fundamental theory for later superconducting research. It also earned three scientists the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1972.

John Bardeen was one of the most influential and influential scientists of that period. He is a member of the American Physics Association (APS) as well as the President's Scientific Advisory Committee. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1954 and was awarded the Buckley Prize of the APS in 1955, the Fritz London Prize for his study of low temperature physics in 1962.

Bardeen died on January 30, 1991 from heart disease, shortly after publishing the final study in Physics Today in December 1990. "Very few people have an influence on the entire 20th century greater than him," said Dr. Robert M. Berdahl at the University of Illinois.

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